As the twentieth century began, the importance of formal education in the United States increased. The frontier had mostly disappeared and by 1910 most Americans lived in towns and cities. Industrialization and the bureaucratization of economic life combined with a new emphasis upon credentials and expertise to make schooling increasingly important for economic and social mobility. Increasingly, too, schools were viewed as the most important means of integrating immigrants into American society.
The arrival of a great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants at the turn of the century coincided with and contributed to an enormous expansion of formal schooling. By 1920 schooling to age fourteen or beyond was compulsory in most states, and the school year was greatly lengthened. Kindergartens, vacation schools, extracurricular activities, and vocational education and counseling extended the influence of public schools over the lives of students, many of whom in the larger industrial cities were the children of immigrants. Classes for adult immigrants were sponsored by public schools, corporations, unions, churches, settlement houses, and other agencies. Reformers early in the twentieth century suggested that education programs should suit the needs of specific populations. Immigrant women were one such population. Schools tried to educate young women so they could occupy productive places in the urban industrial economy, and one place many educators considered appropriate for women was the home.
Although looking after the house and family was familiar to immigrant women, American education gave homemaking a new definition. In preindustrial economies, homemaking had meant the production as well as the consumption of goods, and it commonly included income-producing activities both inside and outside the home, in the highly industrialized early-twentieth-century United States, however, overproduction rather than scarcity was becoming a problem. Thus, the ideal American homemaker was viewed as a consumer rather than a producer. Schools trained women to be consumer homemakers cooking, shopping, decorating, and caring for children "efficiently" in their own homes, or if economic necessity demanded, as employees in the homes of others. Subsequent reforms have made these notions seem quite out-of-date.
1. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that one important factor in the increasing importance of education in the United States was
(A) the growing number of schools in frontier communities
(B) an increase in the number of trained teachers
(C) the expanding economic problems of schools
(D) the increased urbanization of the entire country
2. The word "means" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
3. The phrase "coincided with" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) was influenced by
(B) happened at the same time as
(C) began to grow rapidly
(D) ensured the success of
4. According to the passage , one important change in United States education by the 1920's was that
(A) most places required children to attend school
(B) the amount of time spent on formal education was limited
(C) new regulations were imposed on nontraditional education
(D) adults and children studied in the same classes
5. Vacation schools and extracurricular activities are mentioned in lines 10-11 to illustrate
(A) alternatives to formal education provided by public schools
(B) the importance of educational changes
(C) activities that competed to attract new immigrants to their programs.
(D) the increased impact of public schools on students.
6. According to the passage , early-twentieth century education reformers believed that
(A) different groups needed different kinds of education
(B) special programs should be set up in frontier communities to modernize them
(C) corporations and other organizations damaged educational progress
(D) more women should be involved in education and industry
7. The word "it" in line 22 refers to
1.What are the speakers mainly discussing?
A.The student’s difficulties locating sources for a research project
B.The topic of the student’s research project
C.The student’s request to visit a particular part of the library
D.Procedures for requesting different editions of a book
解析：学生的第一句话“I need to get into special collections,in particular the british literature”，通过I need to表明意图是来看图书馆中关于英国文学的书籍。而之后的全文都在讨论学生没有教授的授权，是否能借阅这些书。所以答案选C。
2.Why is the student unable to use later editions or reproductions of a book he mentions?
A.The later editions contain errors.
B.Professor Gray specified the use of a particular edition.
C.The later editions must be requested from another library.
D.Reproductions typically omit the specific material he needs.
解析：通过工作人员的题问和学生的回答，我们能定位到这道题。考点即是师生之间的问答，而回答我们要重点记。 学生说他的project需要用到文献当中的注释，而这些注释并未在复制品中体现，都被clean up了(clean up相当于D选项中的omit忽视)。所以答案选D。
3.Why is the student reluctant to contact Professor Gray?
A.He already has disturbed her several times during her time away from campus.
B.He does not feel comfortable about asking her for another favor.
C.He does not know her e-mail address.
D.He wants to surprise her with a completed project.
解析：同上题一样，又是通过师生问答引出重要考点。学生说：我希望自已能搞定这件事而不是让教授帮我，因为之前的extra time已经是教授帮的一个大忙了。而现在我觉得skating on thin ice with her。这里的skate on thin ice with her的表达非常重要，我们一定要理解，正如我们中文所说的如履薄冰。试想一下，当教授已经帮了你一个忙而你却没做好的情况下，你再去请求她的第二次帮忙，这种时候是不是如履薄冰，胆战心惊，最好还是别去找她了，对不对?所以这个学生也是同样的心理，故答案选B(再求教授帮第二次忙，学生心里会不舒服)。
4.What does the woman imply about the rules regarding Special Collections?
A.The rules are unfair to the students.
B.The rules are in place to protect the books.
C.The rules are determined by the professors.
D.The rules have changed since the previous semester.
解析：Employee用这样的一句话“If we don't maintain our policies,they'll disintegrate”再次拒绝了学生，这里的policies(policy政策)等同于B选项中的rules规定。如果我们不维持我们的规定，这些文献都会损坏。所以这些规定就是用来保护这些文献书籍，故答案选B。
5.Replay: What does the woman mean when she says this:
A.She has been in a similar situation herself.
B.She will help the student solve his problem.
C.Shen has often heard this kind of story from students.
D.She thinks the student should try to understand her situation.
解析：Everybody has special circumstances.每个人都会有些特殊情况。言下之意即：你不用多讲了，你们这样的故事我听多了。所以答案选C。相信有些同学会有疑问为什么不选D?“每个人都有特殊情况，我们不可能每个人都网开一面，请理解我们”。有这类想法的同学，建议一定要收收脑洞，千万不要过于脑补，如果D是对的，重听原话应改变为“I understand, but sorry, we also have our special circumstance that the policy cannot be changed.” 所以同学们，在错误选项无法排除的情况下，可以尝试下反向思维，这样更有利于把握出题人的思路，增强选项辨析能力哦，加油。
1.Why does the student go to see the professor?
A.To ask if she can interview him for her paper
B.To ask permission to extend the length of her paper
C.To ask permission to change the topic of her paper
D.To askfor more time to finish her paper
解析：So the thing is,you know,okay,I'm writing my paper on the history of jazz in New York City...The thing is,I have this idea that might make it better and I was wondering if there's any way I could get an extension.这两句话的信号词“the thing is ”表明了学生找教授的目的是为了延长论文的递交时间。所以答案选D。
2.What can be inferred about the student's work on her paper so far?
A.She received a lot of help on the paper from professional musicians.
B.She has found enough information to complete the paper.
C.She did not start working on the paper early enough.
D.She is having difficulty finding sources for the paper.
解析：学生这两句话表明论文到现在为止进展顺利，并且I have got a lot to say，我已经有了很多要写的内容。所以答案选B。A选项所说的professional musicians 是她在下周会采访到的人，所以A选项的she received应该改成she will receive。C选项和原文意思相反或没提及，“Well,I could write the paper as it is and turn it in on time and it would be fine”就可以将C排除。D选项的错误比较明显，除了时间一切都进展的很顺利。
3.Why does the student want to interview her friend's grandfather?
A.He has written articles about jazz music in New York City.
B.He has recordings of the musicians discussed in the woman's paper.
C.He owned a historic jazz club in New York City.
D.He was a jazz musician during the 1950s.
4.What does the professor ask the student to do on the original due date of the paper?
A.Turn in her first draft
B.Hand in an outline
C.Submit interview questions
D.Confirm that she has scheduled an interview
解析：But just to be fair,why don't you turn in an outline of your paper on the due date?教授让学生在到期日前先把大纲给交了，学生说没问题。所以答案选B。而C选项中的interview questions，教授的原话是Could you have the questions ready then too?你那个时候(下周采访时)能把采访的问题也准备好吗?这里就对应选项C了。
5.Replay: Why does the student say this:
A.To address the professor's concern
B.To explain a change in her approach to her paper
C.To restate the professor's point
D.To request approval of her topic
解析：Professor: All right.Well,that's a pretty broad subject. 好吧，你的这个主题有点大哦。Student: Well,actually I'm focusing on a specific decade,the 50s. 其实我写的只是50年代的爵士音乐啦。 老师先提出担心，学生就此展开回答，解决老师的担心。 所以答案选A。
1.What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A.To contrast how different kinds of thaw lakes grow
B.To explain why a new theory of thaw lakes is gaining acceptance
C.To explain how processes in permafrost lead to the formation of thaw lakes
D.To describe two competing theories about the growth of thaw lakes
解析：C:What we call the active layer of permafrost,which melts in the summer and refreezes again in the winter.
D:There's been considerable research done to try to figure out what causes them to be shaped and oriented this way. What makes them grow this way?
2.The professor explains thaw lake formation as a cycle of events that occur repeatedly.Summarize this cycle, starting with the eventflled in below.
Drag your answer choices to spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it
a. Meltwater flows into cracks in permafrost..
b. Ice wedges inside permafrost completely melt..
c. Freezing water expands cracks in permafrost..
d. Ice in the active layer melts as temperatures rise..
e. Permafrost shrinks and cracks as temperatures drop..
3. What is the significance of the 'protective shelf' discussed by the professor?
A.It prevents the slumping of lake banks.
B.It shields the lake surface from strong winds.
C.It redirects the waves to lake banks that do not face the wind.
D.It allows the lakes to grow in the same direction as the wind blows.
4. According to the thaw slumping model, which side of a thaw lake grows fastest?
A.The side where the bank is shortest
B.The side least exposed to wind
C.The side that is at the highest elevation
D.The side opposite the protective shelf
5. What is the professor's opinion of the thaw slumping model?
A.He thinks it was urgently needed.
B.He is not convinced that it has a firm basis.
C.He thinks it would be better if it were simplified.
D.He does not think it is very different from the old model.
6. Replay: Why does the professor say this:
A.He wants some information from the students.
B.He thinks that the students may find an example helpful.
C.He realizes that he forgot to mention an important topic.
D.He wants to point out an important difference between frozen ground and dry ground.
解析：重听内容为 You ever see mud after it dries?举个例子帮助学生理解之前ice wedge 产生的情况
Lecture2 (Montessori Method)
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A.Children's reactions to the Montessori Method
B.Teacher training in the Montessori Method
C.How the Montessori Method facilitates children's development
D.How Maria Montessori developed her educational method
解析：If you di your reading for today, then you were introduced to a very influential alternative to traditional education. This educatioonal philosophy and methodology was pionnered in Italyin the early 1900s by Doctor Maria Montessori. 开篇第一句已经告诉我们要讲的是蒙特梭利的教学方法和理论。由后文可知，这种方法是用于小孩子的所以答案选C
2. What does the professor imply about the furniture that was traditionally found in children's classrooms in the early 1900s?
A.It did not encourage interaction among children.
B.It helped maintain discipline in the classroom.
C.It was heavy and difficult for children to move.
D.It was not child sized.
E.It encouraged children to act independently.
解析：此题是审题之后可知是找传统的教学方法的特点，也就是找到和蒙特梭利教学法相反的点。现在文章中定位到蒙特梭利的特点 The furniture was child-sized对应答案D。You won't see any long benches with children in rows or heavy desks withe each other.对应答案A; The furniture is lightweight, so children can move it around easily.对应答案C
3. According to the professor, what is the primary goal of the Montessori teacher?
A.To instruct the child in the correct use of the manipulative equipment
B.To prepare the child socially for future school interactions
C.To focus directly on the skills necessary for academic success
D.To guide the child to learn skills and concepts independently
4. What is the professor's attitude about the Montessori teacher's role?
A.She thinks children need more interaction with adults than it allows.
B.She thinks it is too limiting for the teacher.
C.She thinks it could be a difficult role to perform.
D.She thinks it demands expertise in many academic areas.
解析：That was and still ia a novel idea, and for many teachers not the easiest thiing to do. In facts, for some is very difficult.可见教授觉得，做老师非常难
5. What does the example of the brown stairs demonstrate about Montessori classroom materials?
A.That natural materials provide children with a superior sensorial experience
B.That Montessori classroom materials are generally the same as those used in other primary schools
C.That same materials lack a particular educational focus
D.That one set of materials can be used to introduce several skills
6. Why does the professor mention the violin?
A.To demonstrate the type of creativity the Montessori method encourages
B.To stress the importance of music education at an early age
C.To give an example of how advanced Montessori lessons can be
D.To show that Montessori teachers expect materials to be used for their intended purpose
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A.Explanations for a recent increase in the reindeer population
B.Adaptatians that enable reindeerta live in cold climates
C.Dififerences between newborn reindeer and adult reindeer
D.Changes in the reindeer's food supply
2. According to the professor, why is it necessary far newborn reindeer to be able to walk and run almost immediately?
A.Newborn reindeer face intense competition from older reindeer.
B.Reindeer herds have to travel long distances every day.
C.Running and walking help reindeer maintain a stable body temperature.
D.Running is the only way reindeer can protect themselves from predators.
3. What does the professor say about the lower part of a reindeer's legs?
A.It stays warmer than the upper part of the leg.
B.It is able to maintain the same temperature as the main part of the reindeer's body
C.It contains fat that changes texture at lower temperatures.
D.It contains fat that is different from the fat in the upper part of the leg.
4. What does the professor imply about lichens?
A.They need reindeer in order to survive.
B.They are more abundant than other arctic plants during the winter.
C.They are more important to cows and sheep than they are to reindeer.
D.They are the object of fierce competition among arctic animals.
5. What does the professor say about the microbes in a reindeer's digestive system?
A.Some of the microbes protect the reindeer against harmful bacteria.
B.Many of the microbes are transported into the reindeer's body on lichens that the reindeer eats.
C.The proportion of various microbes changes to accommodate changes in the reindeers diet.
D.The microbes found in a newborn reindeer's digestive system are very different from those found in an adult reindeer.
6. Replay: Why does the professor say this:
A.She wants to emphasize the importance of her previous point.
B.She wants to illustrate her previous point with an example.
C.She wants to return to the main topic of the lecture.
D.She wants to clarify her previous statement.
1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A.Changes over time in the functions of pottery
B.comparison of three types of pottery
C.Kinds of archaeological evidence that pottery provides
D.Improved techniques used for dating pottery
2. Why does the professor list several reasons that pots were traded?
A.To support her claim that pottery provides evidence of distribution
B.To clarify what she means when she uses the term "pottery"
C.Ta explain how archaeologists determine changes to pottery overtime
D.To indicate why certain pottery designs were more popular than others
3. According to the professor, what is one reason it is important to study the material from which pottery was made?
A.It can help archaeologists determine why some types of pottery have not been preserved.
B.It can help archaeologists establish where the pottery came from.
C.It can reveal haw pottery-making techniques advanced from one period to the next.
D.It can provide evidence about the trade value of pottery.
4. According to the professor, why is it difficult to gain information on the function of a pot?
A.Not all pots found in the same location have the same function.
B.Not all pots used to perform the same function look alike.
C.Pots are usually broken into many small pieces.
D.Pots are rarely found in the places in which they were used.
Click on 2 answers
解析：文中说到第三个evidence就是evidence of function，然后接着并列了两点，一个是pottery使用的地方和制作的地方不一致，还有就是pottery本身的功能也不一样
5. What is a skeuomorph?
A.An object with a similar function as another, but with a different design
B.A copy of an object, but made from a different material
C.An exact copy of an object made hundreds of years earlier
D.An object designed to have multiple functions
6. Replay: Why does the professor say this:
A.She expects that the students are already familiar with the point about how archaeologists use pottery.
B.She has described a problem that is easily solved by archaeologists.
C.She wants to know whether students believe it is easy to determine the time period of a site.
D.She is indicating that the assertion she just made about the function of pottery is, in fact, false.